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SERCI is most grateful to Dennis W. K. Khong, who has supplied us with the following bibliography on the economics of copyright, and the economics of copyright law.  If you would like to add to it, or to provide comments on any of the items in it, please send your suggestions to us by e-mail


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Economics of copyright


Economics of Copyright Law




Gordon, Wendy J. 1982. Fair use as market failure: A structural and economic analysis of the Betamax case and its predecessors. Columbia Law Review 82: 1600-1657.




Cirace, J. 1984. When does complete copying of copyrighted works for purposes other than for profit or sale constitute fair use? An economic analysis of the Sony Betamax and Williams & Wilkins cases. Saint Louis University Law Journal 28: 647. Available from Westlaw.




Adelstein, R., and S. Peretz. 1985. The competition of technologies in markets for ideas: Copyright and fair use in evolutionary perspective. International Review of Law and Economics 5: 209.




Gordon, Wendy J. 1989. An inquiry into the merits of copyright: The challenges of consistency, consent and encouragement theory. Stanford Law Review 41: 1343-1469.


Landes, William M., and Richard A. Posner. 1989. An economic analysis of copyright law. Journal of Legal Studies 18: 325-363.


Menell, P. S. 1989. An analysis of copyright protection for application programs. Stanford Law Review 41: 1044-1104.


Palmer, Tom. 1989. Intellectual property: A non-Posnerian law and economics approach. Hamline Law Review 12: 261.




Conley, John M. Revisiting s. 117 of the Copyright Act: An economic approach. The Computer Lawyer 7, no.11 (November): 1. Available from Lexis.


Gordon, Wendy J. 1990. Toward a jurisprudence of benefits: The norms of copyright and the problem of private censorship. University of Chicago Law Review 57: 1009-1049.




Gordon, Wendy J. 1992. Asymmetric market failure and prisoner's dilemma in intellectual property. University of Dayton Law Review 17: 853-869.


Gordon, Wendy J. 1992. On owning information: Intellectual property and the restitutionary impulse. Virginia Law Review 78: 149-281.


Gordon, Wendy J. 1992. Reality as artifact: From Feist to fair use. Law and Contemporary Problems 55: 93-107. Available from Westlaw.


Gordon, Wendy J. 1992. Of harms and benefits: Torts, restitution, and intellectual property. Journal of Legal Studies 21: 449.


Hadfield, Gilliam K. 1992. The economics of copyright: A historical perspective. Copyright Law Symposium (ASCAP) 38: 1-46.


Landes, William M. 1992. Copyright protection of letters, diaries and other unpublished works: An economic approach. Journal of Legal Studies (January). Previously as Chicago Law & Economics Working Paper No. 1 (2d Series).




Anderson, M. G., and P. F. Brown. 1993. The economics behind copyright fair use: A principled and predictable body of law. Loyola University of Chicago Law Journal 24: 143. Available from Westlaw.


Brennan, Timothy J. 1993. Copyright, property, and the right to deny copyright. Chicago-Kent Law Review 68: 675. Available from Lexis.


David, Paul A. 1993. Intellectual property institutions and the panda's thumb: Patents, copyrights, and trade secrets in economic theory and history. In Global Dimensions of Intellectual Property Rights in Scienced and Technology, Mitchell B. Wallerstein, Mary Ellen Magee, and Roberta A. Schoen, eds. (Washington D. C.:  National Academy Press), 19-62.


Gordon, Wendy J. 1993. A property right in self-expression: Equality and individualism in the natural law of intellectual property. Yale Law Journal 102: 1533.


Netanel, Neil Weinstock. 1993. Copyright alienability restrictions and the enhancement of author autonomy: A normative evaluation. Rutgers Law Journal 24: 347. Available from Westlaw.


Schmidtchen, Dieter, and Christian Koboldt. 1993. A pacemaker that stops halfway: The decompilation rule in the EEC Directive on the legal protection of computer programs. International Review of Law and Economics 13: 413-429.


Gordon, Wendy J., and A. Gowen. 1994. Mandated access: Commensurability and the right to say 'no'. Hastings Communications and Entertainment Law Journal 17: 225. Available from Westlaw.


Gordon, Wendy J. et al. 1994. Virtual Reality, Appropriation, and Property Rights in Art: A Roundtable Discussion. Cardozo Arts & Entertainment Law Journal 13: 89-117.


Gordon, Wendy J. 1994. Assertive modesty: An economics of intangibles. Columbia Law Review 94: 2579.




Carlson, Stephen C. 1995. The law and economics of star pagination. George Mason University Law Review 2 (Spring): 421. Available from Lexis.


Dam, Kenneth W. 1995. Some economic considerations in the intellectual property protection of software. Journal of Legal Studies 24: 321-377.


Warren-Boulton, Frederick R., Kenneth C. Baseman, and Glenn A. Woroch. 1995. Copyright protection of software can make economic sense. The Computer Lawyer 12, no. 2 (February): 10. Available from Lexis.


Warren-Boulton, Frederick R., Kenneth C. Baseman, and Glenn A. Woroch. 1995. Economics of intellectual property protection for software: The proper role for copyright. StandardView 3, no. 2 (June): 68-78.




Gordon, Wendy J. 1996. Norms of communications and commodification.  University of Pennsylvania Law Review 144: 2321-2339.


Lunney, Glynn S., Jr. 1996. Reexamining copyright's incentives-access paradigm. Vanderbilt Law Review 49: 483-571.


Merges, Robert P. 1996. Contracting into liability rules: Intellectual property rights and collective rights organisations. California Law Review 84, no. 5 (October): 1293.




Cotter, Thomas F. 1997. Pragmatism, economics, and droit moral. North Carolina Law Review 76: 1- 96. Available from Lexis.


Gordon, Wendy J. 1997. On the economics of copyright, restitution and 'fair use': Systemic versus case-by-case responses to market failure. Journal of Law and Information Science (Australia) 8: 7-45.


Koboldt, Christian. 1997. The EU-Directive on the legal protection of databases and the incentives to update: An economic analysis. International Review of Law and Economics 17, no. 1 (March): 127-138.


Loren, Lydia Pallas. 1997. Redefining the market failure approach to fair use in an era of copyright permission systems. Journal of Intellectual Property Law 5, no. 1 (Fall): 1-58. Available from Lexis.


Meurer, Michael J. 1997. Price discrimination, personal use and piracy: Copyright protection of digital works. Buffalo Law Review 45: 845. Available from Lexis.


 Raskind, L. 1992. Assessing the impact of Feist. University of Dayton Law Review 17: 330.




Cohen, Julie E. 1998. Lochner in cyberspace: The new economic orthodoxy of "rights management". Michigan Law Review 97 (November): 462-563.


Fisher, William W., III. 1998. Property and contract on the Internet. Chicago-Kent Law Review 73: 1203.


Gordon, Wendy J. 1998. Intellectual property as price discrimination: Implications for contract. Chicago-Kent Law Review 73: 1367.


Menell, Peter S. 1998. An epitaph for traditional copyright protection of network features of computer software. Antitrust Bulletin 43: 651.


Turnbull, Shann. 1998. Should ownership law forever? Journal of Socio-Economics 27, no. 3: 341-363.


van den Bergh, Roger. 1998. The role and justification of copyright: A "law and economics" approach. Intellectual Property Quarterly, no. 1.




Benkler, Yochai. 1999. Free as the air to common use: First Amendment constraints on enclosure of the public domain. New York University Law Review 74 (May): 354-446. Available from Lexis.


Reichman, J. H. 1999. Privately legislated intellectual property rights: Reconciling freedom of contract with public good uses of information. University of Pennsylvania Law Review 147 (April): 875-970. Available from Lexis.


Risch, Michael. 1999. How can Whelan v. Jaslow and Lotus v. Borland both be right? Reexaming the economics of computer software reuse. John Marshall Journal of Computer & Information Law 17 (Winter): 511-556. Available from Lexis.


Soon, Jason. 1999. An economic perspective on intellectual property: The case of copyright. Policy (Autumn): 38-41.




Benkler, Yochai. 2000. An unhurried view of private ordering in information transactions. Vanderbilt Law Review 53, no. 6: 2063-2080.


Boyle, James. 2000. Cruel, mean, or lavish? Economic analysis, price discrimination, and digital intellectual property. Vanderbilt Law Review 53, no. 6: 2007-2039.


Cohen, Julie E. 2000. Copyright and the perfect curve. Vanderbilt Law Review 53, no. 6: 1799-1819.


Ginsburg, Jane C., Wendy J. Gordon, Arthur R. Miller, and William F. Patry. 2000. Symposia: The constitutionality of copyright term extension: How long is too long? Cardozo Arts & Entertainment Law Journal 18: 651-737.


Gordon, Wendy J., and Robert Bone. 2000. Copyright. In Encyclopedia of Law & Economics, Vol. 2: Civil Law and Economics, ed. Boudwijn Bouckaert and Gerrit De Geest, 189-215. Cheltenham: Edward Elgar.


Gordon, Wendy J. 2000. Copyright and parody: Touring the certainties of property and restitution. In Certitudes Du Droit/Certainty and the Law, ed. Ejan Mackaay. Montreal: Themis Publishing.


Gordon, Wendy J. 2000. Fine-tuning Tasini: Privileges of electronic distribution and reproduction. Brooklyn Law Review 66: 473-500.


Landes, William M. 2000. Copyright, borrowed images and appropriation art: An economic approach. George Mason Law Review 9: 1. Previously as Chicago John M. Olin Law & Economics Working Paper No. 113 (2d Series).


Levy, Nichelle Nicholes. 2000. Method to their madness: The secure digital music initiative, a law and economics perspective. Virginia Journal of Law and Technology 5, no. 3 (Fall): 12. Available at


Netanel, Neil Weinstock. 2000. Market hierarchy and copyright in our system of free expression. Vanderbilt Law Review 53, no. 6: 1879-1932.


O'Rourke, Maureen A. 2000. Shaping competition on the Internet: Who owns product and pricing information? Vanderbilt Law Review 54, no. 6: 1965-2006.


Towse, Ruth. 2000. Economic Aspects of Limitations and Exceptions to Copyright. [London]: Intellectual Property Institute. [Strathclyde Law D 347.371 TOW]


Yoo, Christopher S. 2000. Copyright and democracy: A cautionary note. Vanderbilt Law Review 53, no. 6: 1933-1963.




Burtis, Michelle M., and Bruce H. Kobayashi. 2001. Why an original can be better than a copy: Intellectual property, the antitrust refusal to deal, and ISO antitrust litigation. Supreme Court Economic Review 9: 143-170. Available from Lexis.


Meurer, Michael J. 2001. Copyright law and price discrimination. Cardozo Law Review 23 (November): 55-148.


Parisi, Francesco, and Catherine Sevcenko. 2001. Lessons from the anticommons: The economics of New York Time Co. v. Tasini. Kentucky Law Journal 90: 295. Available from Lexis.


Samuelson, Pamela. 2001. Economic and constitutional influences on copyright law in the United States. European Intellectual Property Review 23, no. 9 (September): 409-422. Available from Westlaw.


Siebrasse, Norman. 2001. A property right theory of the limits of copyright. University of Toronto Law Journal 51 (Winter): 1.




Benkler, Yochai. 2002. Intellectual property and the organization of information production. International Review of Law and Economics 22: 81-107.


Cheverie, Joan F. 2002. The changing economics of information technology development, and copyright protection: What are the consequences for the public domain? Journal of Academic Librarianship 28, no. 5 (September): 325-331.


Cornish, William. 2002. The author as risk-sharer. Columbia Journal of Law and the Arts 26 (Fall): 1-16. Available from Westlaw.


Depoorter, Ben, and Francesco Parisi. 2002. Fair use and copyright protection: A price theory explanation. International Review of Law and Economics 21: 453-473.


Einhorn, Michael A. 2002. Copyright, prevention, and rational governance: File-sharing and Napster. Columbia Journal of Law and the Arts.


Einhorn, Michael A. 2002. Purple beasts and lewd tunes: Economic reasoning and copyright. Entertainment, Arts, and Sports Law Journal.


Gordon, Wendy J. 2002. Authors, publishers and public goods: Trading gold for dross. Loyola of Los Angeles Law Review 36: 159-198.


Gordon, Wendy J. 2002. Commentary on economic and ethical reasons for protecting data. In International Intellectual Property Law & Policy, vol. 6,  ed. H.C. Hansen. New York: Juris Publishing.


Gordon, Wendy J. 2002. Excuse and justification in the law of fair use: Commodification and market perspectives. In The Commodification of Information, ed. Niva Elkin-Koren and Neil Weinstock Netanel,149. Kluwer Law International.


Gordon, Wendy J. 2002. Market failure and intellectual property: A response to Professor Lunney. Boston University Law Review 82: 1031-1039.


Ku, Raymond Shih Ray. 2002. The creative destruction of copyright: Napster and the new economics of digital technology.  University of Chicago Law Review 69 (Winter): 263-324. Available from Lexis.


Liu, Joseph P. 2002. Copyright and time: A proposal. Michigan Law Review 101 (November): 409.


Tor, Avishalom, and Dotan Oliar. 2002. Incentives to create under a "lifetime-plus year" copyright duration: Lessons from a behavioral economic analysis for Eldred v. Ashcroft. Loyola of Los Angeles Law Review 36 (Fall): 437-492.


Towse, Ruth. 2002. Creativity, Incentive, and Reward: An Economic Analysis of Copyright and Culture in the Information Age. Cheltenham, U. K.: Edward Elgar.


Working Papers


Birnhack, Michael D. [2001.] The idea of progress in copyright law. To be available in Buffalo Intellectual Property Law Journal (2001) 1, no. 3.


Burtis, Michelle M., and Bruce H. Koyabashi. [2000.] Intellectual property and antitrust limitations on contract.


Cass, Ronald A., and Keith N. Hylton. 1999.Preserving competition: Economic analysis, legal standards and Microsoft. George Mason Law Review 8: 1.


Cowan, Robin, and Elad Harison. [2002.] Mobilizing digital sounds: Appropriation and dispute of music recordings.


David, Paul A. [2000.] A Tragedy of the public knowledge ‘commons’? Global science, intellectual property and the digital technology boomerang.


Einhorn, Michael A. [n.d.] Copyright, prevention, and rational governance: File-sharing and Napster.


Einhorn, Michael A. [n.d.] Digital rights management, licensing, and privacy.


Farchy, Joëlle, and Fabrice Rochelandet. [2002.] Self-help systems: Good substitutes for copyright or new barriers to competition?


Gallagher, T. [2001.] Copyright, compulsory licensing and incentives. Oxford Intellectual Property Research Centre Working Paper Series No 2. Available at


Hess, Charlotte, and Elinor Ostrom. [2001.] Artifacts, facilitie, and content: Information as a common-pool resource.


Landes, William, and Douglas Lichtman. [2003.] Indirect liability for copyright infringement: An economic perspective. University of Chicago John M. Olin Law & Economics Working Paper No. 179.


Landes, William M., and Richard A. Posner. [2002.] Indefinitely renewable copyright. University of Chicago John M. Olin Law and Economics Working Paper No. 154.


Lichtman, Douglas. [2003.] Copyright as a rule of evidence. Duke Law Journal. Previously as University of Chicago Law and Economics Olin Working Paper No. 151. Available at


Lim, Yee Fen. [n.d.] The economics of copyright law in the digital age: Which way forth for New Zealand?


Mehra, Salil K. [2002.] Copyright and comics in Japan: Does law explain why all the cartoons my kid watches are Japanese imports?


Menell, Peter S. [2002.] Envisioning copyright law's digital future. UC Berkeley School of Law, Public Law and Legal Theory Research Paper No. 95.


Nadel, Mark S. [2002.] Questioning the economic justification for (and thus constitutionality of) copyright law’s prohibition against unauthorized copying: §106.


Picker, Randal C. [2002.] Copyright as entry policy: The case of digital distribution. University of Chicago John M. Olin Law & Economics Working Paper No. 147.


Picker, Randal C. [2002.] From Edison to the broadcast flag: Mechanisms of consent and refusal and the propertization of copyright. University of Chicago John M. Olin Law & Economics Working Paper No. 159.


Ramello, Giovanni B. [2002.] Copyright and antitrust issues.


Rushton, Michael. [2001.] The law and economics of artists’ inalienable rights. University of Regina, Department of Economics Discussion Paper No. 95.


Towse, Ruth. [2000.] Cultural economics, copyright and the cultural industries.


Towse, Ruth. [2002.] Copyright and cultural policy for the creative industries. Forthcoming in Economics, Law and Intellectual Property, ed. Ove Granstrand (Amsterdam: Kluwer Academic Publishers).


Yen, Alfred C. [2001.] A preliminary economic analysis of Napster: Internet technology, copyright liability, and the possibility of Coasean bargaining.





Economics of Copyright and Copying




Plant, Arnold. 1934. The economic aspects of copyright in books. Economica 1: 167-195.




Hurt, Robert M., and Robert M. Shuchman. 1966. The economic rationale of copyright. American Economic Review Papers and Proceedings 56: 421-432.




Breyer, Stephen. 1970. The uneasy case for copyright: A study of copyright in books, photocopies and computer programs. Harvard Law Review 84: 281-351. Available from Westlaw.




Tyerman, Barry W. 1971. The economic rationale for copyright protection for published books: A reply to professor breyer. UCLA Law Review 18: 1100-1125.




Breyer, Stephen. 1972. Copyright: A rejoinder. UCLA Law Review 20: 75-83.




Braunstein, Yale M., D. M. Fischer, J. A. Ordover, and W. J. Baumol. 1977. "Economics of Property Rights as Applied to Computer Software and Data Bases" Report to National Commission on New Technological Uses of Copyrighted Works (CONTU). Available from NTIS. Excerpt reprinted in G. P. Bush & R. H. Dreyfuss, ed., Technology & Copyright (Lomond, 1979). [Strathclyde D 349.1(73)785.8 BUS] Sections I - III of the CONTU final report are available at


Photocopying and fair use: An examination of the economic factor in fair use. 1977. Emory Law Journal 849.




Besen, Stanley M., William G. Manning Jr., and Bridger M. Mitchell. 1978. Copyright liability for cable television: compulsory licensing and the Coase theorem. Journal of Law and Economics 21: 67-95.


Ordover, J., and R. Willig. 1978. On the optimal provision of journals qua sometimes shared goods. American Economic Review 68: 324-338.




Novos, Ian E., and Michael Waldman. 1984. The effects of increased copyright protection: An analytic approach. Journal of Political Economy 92: 236-246.




Johnson, William R. 1985. The economics of copying. Journal of Political Economy 93: 1581-74.


Liebowitz, S. J. 1985. Copying and indirect appropriability: Photocopying of journals. Journal of Political Economy 93: 945-957.


O'Hare, Michael. 1985. Copyright: When is monopoly efficient? Journal of Policy Analysis & Management 4: 407.


Besen, S. 1986. Private copying, reproduction costs, and the supply of intellectual property. Information Economics and Policy 2: 5–22.




Liebowitz, S. J. 1986. Copyright law, photocopying and price discrimination. Research in Law and Economics 8: 181-200.




Liebowitz, S. J. 1987. Some puzzling behavior by owners of intellectual products. Contemporary Policy Issues 5: 44-53.




Besen, Stanley M., and Sheila Nataraj Kirby. 1989. Private copying, appropriability and optimal copying royalties. Journal of Law and Economics 32: 255-280.




Conner, K.,  and R. Rumelt. 1991. Software piracy: An analysis of protection strategies. Management Science 37: 125–139.




Besen, Stanley M., Shelia N. Kirby, and Steven C. Salop. 1992. An economic analysis of copyright collectives. Vanderbilt Law Review 78: 383.


Jussawalla, Meheroo. 1992. The economics of intellectual property in a world without frontiers: A study of computer software. New York: Greenwood Press. [Law D347.8974 JUS]


Oniki, Hajime. 1992. Mathematical appendix. In The Economics of Intellectual Property in a World Without Frontiers: A Study of Computer Software, ed. Meheroo Jussawalla (New York: Greenwood Press), 115-135.




Takeyama, L. 1994. The welfare implications of unauthorized reproduction of intellectual property in the presence of demand network externalities. Journal of Industrial Economics 42: 155–166.




Loren, Lydia Pallas 1997. Redefining the market failure approach to fair use in an era of copyright permission systems. Journal of Intellectual Property Law 5: 1-58. Available from Lexis.


Takeyama, L. 1997. The intertemporal consequences of unauthorized reproduction of intellectual property. Journal of Law and Economics 40: 511–522. Available from Westlaw.




Bakos, Yannis, and Erik Brynjolfsson. 1999. Bundling information goods: Pricing, profits, and efficiency. Management Science 45 (12): 1613-1630. Draft available from


Bakos, Yannis, Erik Brynjolfsson, and Douglas Lichtman. 1999. Shared information goods. Journal of Law and Economics 42: 117–155. Available from Westlaw.


Shy, Oz, and Jacques-Francois Thisse. 1999. A strategic approach to software protection. Journal of Economics and Management Strategy 8, no. 2: 163–190.




Bakos, Yannis, and Erik Brynjolfsson. 2000. Aggregation and disaggregration of information goods: Implications for bundling, site licensing, and micropayment systems. In Internet Publishing and Beyond: The Economics of Digital Information and Intellectual Property, ed. Brian Kahin and Hal R. Varian (Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press). Draft available at


Kahin, Brian, and Hal R. Varian, eds. 2000. Internet Publishing and Beyond: The Economics of Digital Information and Intellectual Property. Cambridge, Mass. MIT Press.


Shy, Oz. 2000. The economics of software protection and other media. In Internet Publishing and Beyond: The Economics of Digital Information and Intellectual Property, ed. Brian Kahin and Hal R. Varian (Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press).


Varian, H., 2000. Buying, sharing and renting information goods. Journal of Industrial Economics 48, no. 4: 473–488.


Varian, Hal R. 2000. Versioning information goods. In Internet Publishing and Beyond: The Economics of Digital Information and Intellectual Property, ed. Brian Kahin and Hal R. Varian (Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press). Draft available at


Watt, Richard. 2000. Copyright and Economic Theory: Friends or Foes? Cheltenham, UK: Edward Elgar.




Brennan, David J. 2002. Fair price and public goods: A theory of value applied to retransmission. International Review of Law and Economics 22: 347-375.


Chiang Eric, and Djeto Assane. 2002. Software copyright infringement among college students. Applied Economics 34: 157-166.


Lerner, Josh, and Jean Tirole. 2002. Some simple economics of open source. Journal of Industrial Economics 50, no. 2 (June): 197-234. Previously as NBER Working Paper 7600. Available at


Phillips, Owen R., and Lori J. Phillips. 2002. The market for academic journals. Applied Economics 34: 39-48.


Yoon, Kiho. 2002. The optimal level of copyright protection. Information Economics and Policy 14: 327-348.




Chen, Yeh-ning., and Ivan Png. 2003. Information goods pricing and copyright enforcement: Welfare analysis. Information System Research 14, no. 1 (March).


Working Papers


Alonso, Jorge, and Richard Watt. [2002.] Efficient distribution of copyright revenue.


Alvisi, Matteo, Elena Argentesi, and Emanuela Carbonara. [2002.] Piracy and quality choice in monopolistic markets.


Andrés, Antonio Rodríguez. [2002.] The European software piracy: An empirical application.


Bellefamme, Paul. [2002.] Pricing information goods in the presence of copying.


Ben-Shahar, Danny, and Assaf Jacob. [2001.] Preach for a breach: Selective enforcement of copyrights as an optimal monopolistic behavior.


Bitzer, Jürgen, and Philipp J.H. Schröder. [2002.] Bug-fixing and code-writing: The private provision of open source software.


Chen, Yeh-ning, and Ivan Png. [2002.] Information goods pricing and copyright enforcement: Welfare anlaysis.


Csorba, Gergely. [2002.] Read-only versions for free and for profit: Functional quality diferentiation strategies of a software producing monopoly.


Curry, Philip A. [1998.] Copyright, copy protection and Feist. University of Western Ontario Research Paper No. 9808. Available at


Harbaugh, Rick, and Rahul Khemka. [2000.] Does copyright enforcement encourage piracy?


Hui, Kai Lung, and I. P. L. Png. [2002.] Piracy and the legitimate demand for recorded music.


Johnson, Justin Pappas. [2001.] Economics of open source software.


Kasdan, John [1986.] The economics of copyright with application to licensing. Columbia Law School, Center for Law and Economics Studies Working Paper No. 23.


King, Stephen P., and Ryan Lampe. [In press.] Network externalities, price discrimination and profitable piracy. Information Economics and Policy.


Kirstein, Roland, and Dieter Schmidtchen. [2000.] Do artists benefit from resale royalties? An economic analysis of a new EU directive.


Koboldt, Christian. [1995.] Intellectual property and optimal copyright protection.


Lerner, Josh, and Jean Tirole. [2002.] The scope of open source licensing. NBER Working Paper 9363. Available at


Liebowitz, S. J. [1985.] The economics of Betamax: Unauthorized copying of advertising based television broadcasts.


Liebowitz, Stan. [2002.] Back to the Future: Can copyright owners appropriate revenues in the face of new copying technologies?


Mustonen, Mikko. [In press.] Copyleft—The economics of Linux and other open source software. Information Economics and Policy.


Mustonen, Mikko. [2002.] Why do firms support the development of substitute copyleft programs?


Parisi, Francesco, and Ben Depoorter. [2002.] The market for intellectual property: The case of complementary oligopoly. George Mason University School of Law, Law and Economics Working Paper Series No. 02-19.


Poddar, Sougata. [2002.] Economics of software piracy and it's global impact. Available at


Regner, Tobias. [2002.] Innovation of music.


Riis, Thomas. [2002.] Economic impact of the protection of unoriginal databases in developing countries and countries in transition. Study prepared for 7th Session of the Standing Committee on Copyright and Related Rights, World Intellectual Property Organnization, Geneva, 13-17 May.


Rochelandet, Fabrice. [2002.] Are copyright collecting societies efficient? An evaluation of collective administration of copyright in Europe.


Subramanian, P. [2000.] Three essays in microeconomics: Uncertain innovation in the presence of network externalities, Copyleft: An R&D game with network externalities, Imperfect recall in a model of search. Dissertation, Princeton University.


Takeyama, Lisa N. [2002.] Piracy, asymmetric information, and product quality revelation.


Towse, Ruth. [2000.] Copyright and cultural industries: Incentives and earnings.


Watt, Richard. [2001.] Prices in cultural markets: A theoretical introduction for beginners.





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